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Marine Corps Vietnam-era Tankers and Ontos Crewmen Have Made History. 

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The Evolution of Marine Tanks.

It all started with this,

1st Tank Platoon USMC
By Lloyd G. Reynolds © 1998

     During the First World War the Marines of the 5th and 6th Marine Regiment's 4th Marine Brigade, 2nd Division, United States Army*, saw and participated in some of the first tank-infantry assaults of recorded history. Among the first witnesses of these attacks were a few far-sighted officers, who, after the war, were to fight later-on to convince the Department of the Navy that the Marine Corps should have at least one platoon of tanks. But, with the end of the “War to End All Wars”, it was a long, hard, uphill fight to get the military purse strings loosened up enough to afford a tank platoon. Never the less, one was authorized in 1923. It is a sad note that the names of these farsighted officers cannot be found, due to the red tape of history.

     Thus with the reluctant blessings of the Great White Fathers of the Navy Department in Washington, the first of a long line of Marine Corps tank units was formed. It was officially designated "Light Tank Platoon USMC" at Quantico, Virginia, on December 5th 1923. The Platoon consisted of twenty-two enlisted men and two officers. The Commanding Officer was Captain Leslie G. Wayt, and the Executive Officer was Second Lieutenant Charles S. Finch.

     The Platoon was issued three, six-ton light tanks. These tanks had been built in the United States during 1918 under license from the French Government. They were copies of the famous French Renault FT-17 of the First World War. Built to U.S. specifications, they had an ACF Buda Marine Engine, and two of them mounted Browning .30 cal. machine guns. The other one mounted a French 37mm Puteaux one-pounder infantry cannon. One of the reasons that this tank was so famous, was that it was the first tank to successfully mount a weapon in a fully 360 degree traversing turret. Even though it was called the Six-Ton Light Tank, its total weight was 7.8 tons. With that weight powered by the four-cylinder engine, it could really gallop along at a fast 5 1/2 miles per hour. The Tank Commander/gunner sat in a hammock-like affair hung from the turret walls and just sort of bounced around amongst all the ammunition in the fighting compartment, which was 4,800 rounds for the machine guns or 237 rounds for the cannon. The driver was a little better off in that he had a seat, but both men suffered considerably from the exhaust and gasoline fumes of the engine.

     During the rest of that winter and all through the next summer the Platoon became familiar with their tanks. Most of the men had never even seen a tank before, but being Marines they went at the job in the typical Marine fashion, head on. Every one in the platoon became familiar with all aspects of the job of an Iron Horse Marine, driving, gunnery and preventive Maintenance They learned what the tanks could do and usually, by trial and error, what they could not do. The platoon also participated in many of the publicity maneuvers and parades, which were a hallmark of the times

     During the winter of 1924, the platoon participated in the "Winter Maneuvers" with the East Coast Expeditionary Force from Quantico. These maneuvers were held on the island of Culebra, off the eastern coast of Puerto Rico. The maneuvers were designed to test and perfect amphibious landing techniques. They were of the trial and error type, at least as far as the "Tankers" were concerned. It was defiantly learned that this type of tank was not suited for amphibious operations. The lessons learned during maneuvers such as these would be a tremendous help later on during World War II, when the Marines perfected their amphibious assault techniques in the Pacific.

     Upon the platoon's return from Culebra, they received two more tanks, one machine gun and one cannon. It was now a full-fledged tank platoon with five tanks. There was even an experimental tank to try out. It was a standard Six-Ton with the turret removed and fitted out as a communications tank. The platoon was in tank heaven and the haggling over who would drive what was cut to a minimum.

     For the next three years the platoon performed peacetime garrison type duties. Going on limited maneuvers and exercises, performing in publicity parades and run of the mill Marine duties, but constantly learning more and more about their tanks. For the Marines it was almost too dull, but, as for all those who wait, an exciting change was in store for these "Iron Horse Marines". The political crisis in China was getting worse and the Third Marine Brigade was asking for reinforcements.

     Early in 1927 the platoon was Far East Bound. The "Old Salts" were again telling the "Boots" sea stories about the wonders of the Orient, and some of the boots were looking forward to getting tattooed like the old salts. But they had to wait, for at that time it was an unwritten law that no one got a tattoo until he had served overseas.

     The platoon, now under the command of Captain Nathen E. Landon, lashed down their tanks on flat cars and left Quantico by rail on April 6, 1927. Arriving in San Diego on April 12, the platoon didn't take any time out for liberty. In typical Marine fashion the tanks and all the platoon's gear was derailed, moved dockside, embarked, and lashed down aboard the USS President Grant, all in one day. The platoon then had a few days to pull liberty before the ship sailed. The trip from San Diego to Olongapo, Philippine Islands was as usual, uneventful, except for the Marine who were seasick and thought the trip would never end. Upon arrival at Olongapo, it was back to work again for the tankers, as they had to change ships. On May 4th they set to work unlashing their tanks and transferring them to the USS Chaumont, where they were again tied down. After the troops were settled in and the card games resumed the ship set sail for Shanghai, China.

     Arriving at Taku Bar, Shanghai, China on the 21st of May the platoon again disembarked and began getting ready for what they hoped would be an exciting tour of duty in China. After the tanks were put back in a ready condition, some of the men went on their first liberty. While some got their firs tattoos, others began to explore the wonders of the Orient. All agreed that Shanghai liberty was all or more than it was said to be. But such a good life is not for Marines and after about two weeks the platoon was on the move again. It was sent up river by barge to Tientsin on the 6th of June. The platoon was assigned the job of protecting the Peking-Tientsin railway. At least that was its official job during the balance of its tour of duty in China. Even though these were troubled times in China, and some of the Marines were looking for excitement; the job was considered as dull garrison duty.

     With the exception of being a show of force, the platoon's duties were much the same as it was earlier in Quantico. They went on limited maneuvers, performed in good-will shows and publicity parades, stood inspections and kept their tank well maintained. It was almost like the occupation duty that the Marines would again be assigned to do in the same area in 1945. While not on duty the Marines of the platoon could be found on liberty in Tientsin, which they discovered was just as good a liberty town as was Shanghai. This was their life for the next fifteen months until the crisis was lifted and the Marine Corps could no longer afford a tank platoon.

     On September 15, 1928, the platoon was administratively detached and transferred to the Light Tank Platoon, Composite regiment, San Diego. The Marines again loaded their tanks aboard barges and left for Shanghai, where they were loaded aboard ship and lashed down for the trip home. When the ship left Shanghai on September 18th, besides their tanks, the platoon took with them lots of wonderful memories of their tour of duty in China.

     The platoon debarked in San Diego on November 1st and joined the Composite Regiment. After everyone was settled in they had time to enjoy some of San Diego's nightspots. Then on November 10, (the Marine Corps birthday) the platoon was disbanded. Some of the men were transferred to other units while others were discharged. But once again history leaves something out and we don't know what happened to the tanks.

     Many more stories may be written about Marine Tankers, but these were the pioneers of a brand new arm of the Marine Ground-Sea-Air team. During their brief five years of existence they set the trend for the "Iron Horse Marines" of today.

By Lloyd G. Reynolds
Aug. 11 1998

* See

Photo credits, USMC, National Archives, Department of Defence, Imperial War Museum unless otherwise noted.

FT 17 in China. USMC Photo.
Inspection in China. USMC Photo.
The author helped restore this FT 17.  Authors photo.
Owned by Dr. Frank Haigler.  Authors photo.

The 1930's and early 40's.

Marmon-Harrington CTL-3a. (Combat Tank Light)
Marmon-Harrington CTL-6, two man crew, 3 .30 cal. MG's.
Marmon-Harrington CTM-3TBD, 3 man crew, 2 .50 cal. MG's in turret, 3 .30 cal. MG's in hull.

1st Separate Tank Company, Tutuila, Samoa.  L to R. Army M3 type light tank, 2 CTL-6's, 2 CTM-3TBD's.
M-2 Light Tank.
M2A4 Light Tank.
M2A4 Light Tanks on parade at MCB San Diego
M2A4 Light Tanks of A Company, 2nd Tank Battalion, USMC, on parade in Iceland, circa 1942.
Early M-3 Light Tank.
M2A4 Practice Landing.
Training on an M-3.
 Used by Marines: Defence Battalions, 1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th Tank     Battalions.
M2A4 Iceland, Guadalcanal, Defence Battalions.
M3 Defence Battalions, Guadalcanal,
M3A1 Guadalcanal, Emirau, New Georgia, Boganville, Tarawa, some converted to "Satan" Flame Tanks. 
M5A1 Cape Gloucester, Roi-Numar, Saipan, Tinian.

5th & 6th Tank Battalions had no light tanks.

Tank Landings/Operations in WW II.

Date Location Tk Bn's/Units Tanks Used
Guadalcanal 1st Tk. Bn. M2A4,M3, M3A1
Talasea 1st Plt. Co. "C" & Co. "A" 1st Tk. Bn. M3A1, M4A1
Hollandia Co "A" 1st Tk. Bn. M4A1
Jun.30,1943 Munda,New Georga 9th,10th & 11th Defence Bn. Tks. M3, M3A1
Nov.1, 1943 Bouganville 3rd Tk. Bn. M3A1
Nov.20,1943 Tarawa 2nd Tk. Bn. Co. "C" I Marine Amphibious Corps Tk. Bn. M3A1, M4A2
Dec.26,1943 Cape Glouster, New Britian 1st Tk. Bn. M3A1, M4A1
Jan.31,1944 Roi-Namur 4th Tk. Bn. M5A1, M4A2
Feb.18,1944 Eniwetok 2nd Separate Tk. Co. M4A2
Feb.18,1944 Engebi 2nd Separate Tk. Co. M4A2
Feb.22,1944 Perry 2nd Separate Tk. Co. M4A2
Mar.20,1944 Emirau Co. "A"3rd Tk. Bn. M4A2
Jun.15,1944 Saipan 2nd & 4th Tk. Bn. M4A2,M5A1, M3A1 (Satan), M32B2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit.
Jul. 21,1944 Guam 3rd Tk. Bn., Tk. Co., 4th Mar., Tk. Co. 22 Mar. M4A2, M32B2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit.
Jul.24, 1944 Tinian 2nd & 4th Tk. Bn. M4A2,M5A1, M3A1 (Satan), M32B2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit.
Sep.15,1944 Pelilu 1st Tk. Bn. M4A2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit.
Feb.19,1945 Iwo Jima 3rd, 4th & 5th Tk. Bn. M4A2, M4A3, M4A3POA H1 Flame Tank, M32B2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit., M4A2 w/M1A1 Flame kit, M4A3 Flail.
Apr. 1, 1945 Okinawa 1st & 6th Tk. Bn. M4A2, M4A3, M32B2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit.

The WW II years 1941-1945.  (Light Tanks)

M2A4= 1 37mm Gun, 5 .30 Cal. MG, Continental Radial Air Cooled Engine.
M3= 1 37mm Gun, (later w/a gyrostabilizer) 5 .30 Cal. MG, Continental Radial Air Cooled Engine. (some w/Guiberson Radial Diesel). (Early production M3s had riveted turrets, Later changed to welded.)
M3A1= 1 37mm Gun, (the 1st light tank to have a turret basket, stabilized gun and power traverse) (Welded turret with out copula.) 3 .30 Cal. MG, Continental Radial Air Cooled Engine. (some w/Guiberson Radial Diesel).
M3A3= 1 37mm Gun, 3 .30 Cal. MG, Continental Radial Air Cooled Engine. Welded hull and turret, A new turret incorporating a radio bustle and larger hatches wit no copula. Angled armor.
M5A1= 1 37mm Gun, 3 .30 Cal. MG, Engine, Twin Cadillac V-8's with Hydra-Matic transmission, All welded construction, no copula, large turret hatches. Angled armor.
An M2A4 of the 1st Tank Battalion on Guadalcanal. 
An M2A4 leading two M3 Light Tanks on Guadalcanal.
An M3A1 Light Tank on Guadalcanal.
An M3A1 landing on Emirau Island.
Marines of the 7th Defense Battalion, one of the "Rainbow Five," give their new M3 Stuart light tank a trial run at Tutuila, American Samoa, in the summer of 1942.
M5A1 on Boganville.
US Marines sitting atop a M5A1 light tank, Cape Gloucester, New Britain, Bismarck Archipelago, late Dec 1943
M3A1 at Tarawa.
Light tank bogged down in shell hole on Tarawa.

M3A1 Light Flame Tank "Satan".

Early experiments M3A1 with portable M1A1 Flame Thrower in the bow MG position.  According to one Marine of this era interviewed, "The flame ginner held the tanks between his knees".
An M3A1 "Satan" Flame Tank with the Ronson Flame Thrower system on Saipan.
A "Satan" on Saipan.
On Saipan a "Satan" with two M5A1's.
Front view of a M3A1 "Satan" Flame Tank.
The Light Flame tanks were not ready in time for Tarawa.  As far as the author knows they were only used at Saipan and Tinian by the 2nd and 4th Tank Battalions.

The WW II years 1941-1945.  (Medium Tanks)

The M4 Medium Tank went through a lot of variations.
M4A1= 1 75mm Gun, 1 .50 Cal. 2 .30 Cal. MGs. Continental Radial Air Cooled Gasoline Engine. Only used by 1st Tks at Cape Gloucester.
M4A2= 1 75mm Gun, 1 .50 Cal. 2 .30 Cal. MGs. Twin G.M. Diesel Engines.  The first combat use of M4 series tanks by the USMC was at Tarawa. Also used at Kwajelein, Roi-Namur, Perry Island, Saipan, Tinian, Guam, Peleliu, Iwo Jima and Okinawa.
M4A3= 1 75mm Gun, 1 .50 Cal. 2 .30 Cal. MGs. Ford V-8 Gasoline Engine.  Used by 5th Tk. Bn. on Iwo Jima and 6th Tk. Bn. on Okinawa.
A 1st Tk. Bn. M4A1 landing at Cape Gloucester.
M4A1s of the 1st Tk. Bn. on New Georgia.
New Georgia
M4A1s of the 1st Tk. Bn. on New Georgia.
An M4A2 of "C" Co. 1st Corps Tk. Bn. attached to the 2nd Mar. Div. for Tarawa fell into a shell hole and drowned out.  No tanks (Light or Medium) had any fording kits at Tarawa.
Of the 14 tanks of Co. "C" 1st Corps Medium Tank Bn. Ten made it to the beach.
See= Marine Armor on Tarawa
Colorado on the beach at Tarawa.  See=Tanks on Tarawa
Fording 01
M4A2 with improvised fording stacks. Perry Island, 2nd separate Tk. Co.
Fording 02
M4A2 with improvised fording stacks made from 55 Gal. drums.  Improvise, adapt and overcome. 3rd Tk. Bn., Guam.
By Siapan fording stacks were standardized.
Ill Wind
Ill Wind on Tinian.  C. B. Ash the driver of this tank says note the TCs pericope.  They welded two together to get 6" more elevation.
Peleliu 01
1st Tank coming ashore at Pelilu.
Pelilu 02
Peliliu was tough on tanks.
Sand bags on the rear deck. Pelilu.
So was Iwo Jima.
An M4A3 of the 4th Tk. Bn. on Iwo Jima. 
An M4A2 of the 5th Tk. Bn. on Iwo Jima. 
Note the nails welded on the hatches to keep the Japs off. 
An M4A3 of "C" Co. 4th Tk. Bn. Note, inprovised water tank with a spigot for the grunts, improvised Tank Infantery phone and clock for infantry to give directions, extended track grousers. C. B. Ash there is 4" of cement between hull and 1" planks on side of the tank.
6th Tk.
For Okinawa this M4A2 tank has added extra track blocks for protection.
This one has some added protection and still has some of the fording kit attached.
Okie 02
These tanks have added a lot of added track blocks as added armor.

M4 series Flame Tanks and other varients.

M4 Bow Flame
An M4A2 with the M1A1 bow Flame Gun.  It was used on Iwo Jima.
An M4A3 POA H1 Flame Tank on Iwo Jima.  The Flame Gun was mounted in worn out 75mm gun tubes.
U.S. Army Flame Tank on Okinawa fron the 713th Tk. Bn.  The Marines had no Flame Tanks on Okinawa.
Another M4A3 POA H1 Flame Tank on Iwo Jima.
The M32B2 Tank Retriver made its first apperance with the Marines  on Saipan. 
This M32B2 is getting a souvenir on Guam.
Dozer kits added to tanks were as welcome as Flame Tanks to the Tk. Bn.
M4A2s on Guam with a Dozer Tank.
Rocket 01 Rocker 02
Rockets (7.2 In.) were expermented with in Europe and the Pacific, but it is not known if they were used in the Pacific by the Marines.
Flail 01
4th Tk. Bn. Flail Tank (home made by GySgt. Sam Johnson and Sgt. Ray Shaw) photographed on Maui.  It landed on Iwo Jima but was destroyed on the beach,  (C. B. Ash)
Flail 02
Another view of the 4th Tks Flail,

Marine Tanks in Korea

Tanks used
M4A3E8= M4A3,with upgraded horizontal Volute  suspension, with 105mm Howitzer & M4A1 Dozer Kit.
M4A3E8 with POA-CWS-H5 Flame Thrower & 105mm Howitzer.
M32B3= M4A3E8 Tank Recovery Vehicle.
M-26= 1 90mm M3 Gun, w/.30 Cal. Co-ax, 1 .50 Cal. on top of turret, 1 .30 Cal. in bow. Used the same engine as the M4A3 series tanks, Ford GAF V-8 500 hp. (very under powered). Torsion Bar suspension.
M26A1= Up graded with Continental AV-1790-5A, V-12, 810 hp. Replaced during July-November by the M-46.
M-46= 1 90mm M3A1 Gun, w/.30 Cal. Co-ax, 1 .50 Cal. on top of turret, 1 .30 Cal. in bow. Engine Continental AV-1790-5A, V-12, 810 hp.
Note it's very hard to tell the difference between the M-26 & M-46 just from photos.
M26 Pusan
An M-26 during the fighting in the Pusan Perimeter.
M-26 can take a hit.
M-26 with 18 inch searchlight.
A pair of T-34/85s knocked out.
Pusan 02
 An M-26 during the fighting in the Pusan Perimeter. (Balls'ey T.C.)
M4 Dozer
An M4A3E8 105mm Dozer tank 
Aboard Ship
Loading up for Inchon. 
Street fighting in Seoul. 
none  none 
Moving North on narrow roads.  
Winter's coming. 
Winter and mountains.
A knocked or abandond SU 76.  
m46 01
An M-46 on the firing line.
M-46 with searchlight bracket. 
M-26 or 46 indirect firing at night. 
A replacement M-46.
m46 dozer
M-46 Dozer tank with anti-tank rocket cage. 
The "Porcupine" an M4A3E8 with a fake gun & welded turret.
The "Porcupine" it was all communications inside, to communicate with Air, Infantry, Navy & Artilery.
Flame tank
An M4A3E8 POA CWA H5 Flame Tank. Jack Carty Photo. 
Flame Tank Platoon. 
Flame tanks at Chosin. 

Interwar Marine Tanks.

M47= Last tank to have a bow gunner, 1st tank to have a range finder, Stereoscopic M12, Continental AV-17905B gasoline engine, 90mm M36 gun, 1 .50 Cal. 2 .30Cal. MG. 1951 to 1959, 3rd Tk. Bn. last unit to have the M47. Not used in Korea by Marines. See Tank Data.
M48= Continental AVI-1790-5B gasoline engine, 90mm M41 gun, 1 .50 Cal. (sky mounted), 1 .30 Cal. MG., Stereoscopic T46E1 Rangefinder. See Tank Data
M48A1= Continental AVI-1790-5B to 7C gasoline engine, 90mm M41 gun, 1 .50 Cal. in turret copula, 1 .30 Cal. MG., Stereoscopic T46E1 Rangefinder.
M67= Flame Tank version of M48A1.
M48A2= Continental AVI-1790-8 gasoline engine, Stereoscopic M13A1 Rangefinder, 90mm M41 gun, 1 .50 Cal. in turret copula, 1 .30 Cal. MG.     
M51 VTR= Continental AVSI-1790-6 gasoline engine, 1 .50 Cal. HBM2 MG. Built from the M103 chassi. See Tank Data.
M103A1= Continental AVI-1790-7B to 7C gasoline engine, 1 20mm M58 gun, 1 .50 Cal., 1 .30 Cal. MG.  See Tank Data.
M103A2= Continental AVDS-1790-2A  gasoline engine, 1 20mm M58 gun, 1 .50 Cal., 1 .30 Cal. MG.  See Tank Data.
Dozer kits were used for the M47, M48A1 & A2.
M47 on the gun range.
Army M47 in Germany.
M48 w/sky mount .50 Cal. MG. Photo ?
M48 note track tension idler wheel & engineck deck. Photo ?
M48 note engine deck & large box which was a Tank/Infantry phone. Photo ?
Platoon of M48A1 tanks of 2nd Tk. Bn. 
M67A1 Flame Tank 
M48A2 (the track tension idler wheel was cut off of these) Peter Saussy. 
M103A1 120mm Gun.
M103A2 on the range at Camp Pendelton, 1967.
M48A2 Rear Photo ?
M51 VTR.
M51 Retriver
M51 Retriver.
M48A3 Dozer tank. "C" Co. 5th Tk. Bn. 1968.  Authors photo.

 Marine Tanks in Vietnam.

M48A3= Continental AVDS-1790-2A supercharged diesel, 90mm Gun M-41,  1 .50 Cal. in turret copula, and 1 .30 Cal. MG, Coincidence Rangefinder M17A1, 4 man crew. 1 Dozer Tank per Company. See Tank Data. All M48A3 were upgrades from the M48A1s and A2s.
M67A2= Continental AVDS-1790-2A supercharged diesel, Flame Thrower M7-6, 1 .50 Cal. in turret copula, and 1 .30 Cal. MG, 3 man crew. See Tank Data.
Mod B= Vision Blocks inserted below the copula, armored fraiming above exhaust louvers and around tail lights, improved copula hatch, TI phone moved and other changes.
M51= Continental AVSI-1790-6 gasoline engine, 1 .50 Cal. HBM2 MG. Built from the M103 chassi. See Tank Data.
The 1st Tank Platoon to land in Vietnam was 3rd Plt. "B" Co. 3rd Tks. on Mar. 9, 1965. See Map.
3rd Plt. tanks from Bravo Co. 3rd Tk. Bn. aboard LCU 1476 leaving the USS Vancouver heading for "Red Beach". March 8, 1965
Bravo 31 landing at Red Beach with Joe Tyson driving Mar. 8th 1965. From the Military Channel video. This was the 2nd tank to land, S/Sgt. John Downey was TC of the 1st tank to come ashore.
The first large scale operation (Starlight).
M48A3 Drivers Compartment. Authors photo.
M48A3 Loaders area. Authors photo.
M48A3 Gunners area. Authors photo.
M48A3 Tank Commanders area. Authors photo.
Turret Rear
M48A3 Turret rear (Bustle). Authors photo.
View through the gunners pericope. Authors photo.

River Crossing Bob Haller photo.

River Crossing Bob Haller photo.

Tank Wash
Keeping every thing clean. Bob Haller photo.
Alpha Co. Blade Tank. James Sausoman photo.

Bravo Co. 1st Tks. Carol Lemmon photo.

1st Plt Alpha Co. 1st Tks. Larry Sterling photo.

Removing the coupla for the Mod B upgrade. Rick Langley.

Coupla with old TC hatch. Rick Langley.

New vision ring inserted and replacing copula thit new TC hatch. Rick Langley.

A few minor adjustment and it' ready to go. Rick Langley.

Lt. Horner’s platoon, from F/2/5 take cover behind an M67A2 Flame Tank and a M48A3 during the battle for Hue.  Photo ?

An M48A3 supports grunts in Hue.  Photo ?

Highway 9, the road to Khe Sanh.  Photo ?

Khe Sanh Tank. Photo ?

Tank as artilery at Khe Sanh. Jack Butcher.

Tank as artilery at Khe Sanh. Jack Butcher.

If you've gotten this far you may be interested in some of the sources I used.

Marines Under Armor Tanks WW II
Pacific Battles Flame Dragg
Tanks Beach My Book
Unpublished Manuscript by Author.
none none
41-45 65-70
M1 A Patton Tanks
Web Site Links
Marmon-Herrington Tanks
WW II Gyrene
Military Mash Up
WW II Vehicles

Flame Dragon

Marine Armor on Tarawa

Co. C, 1st. Corp. Medium Tank Battalion

4th Marine Brigade

AFV Data Base


For more photos of Marine tanks in Vietnam
 see Personal Photos Collection.